Training Within Industry (TWI).

A series of training programs developed during World War II that allowed American companies to hire and train large numbers of new employees to replace those who had to serve in the military. 

TWI consisted of three training programs, collectively called "J programs. 

  • Job Instruction trained supervisors and experienced staff how to train people to do the job with fewer defects, less downtime and repair work, fewer accidents and less damage to instruments and equipment. 
  • Job Methods trained employees to methodically make improvements by making optimal use of people, machines and materials to make larger quantities of quality products in less time.
  • Job Relations (work relations) trained supervisors how to deal with people problems effectively and equitably by gathering and weighing facts, making a decision, taking action and checking results. Although the TWI concepts fell into oblivion in America in the postwar prosperity
    , less profitable Japanese companies, including Toyota, took up the concepts. TWI's Job Instruction program is still the most widely used training tool by Toyota leaders around the world. In the last
    years, the programs are also experiencing a revival in the United States and other countries.

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