One of three related Japanese words (shojinka, shoninka, shoryokuka) that are conceptually related but have different meanings. Shojinka means "flexible labor line" and refers to the ability to adjust a line to meet production demands with any number of workers and random changes in demand. It is also sometimes called labor linearity, after the ability of an assembly line to be balanced even at times when production volume fluctuates.
Shoninka means "labor savings. This term refers to the improvement of work procedures, machinery or equipment, which can free up whole units of labor (people) in a production line consisting of one or more workers.
Shoryokuka means "labor savings" and refers to partial improvement of manual work by adding small machines or devices to support that work. This results in a small amount of labor being saved, but does not free up an entire person, as in shoninka. (A number of shoryokuka savings added together can result in shoninka savings, however.)